New “Link’s Awakening” triggers debate on remakes

It seems a lot of forum activity has been generated by yesterday’s announcement by Nintendo about the remake of Link’s Awakening on the Nintendo Switch.

In short, it seems that a significant number of fans are not in favor of the remake for one reason or another. Mostly this can be summed up as: “It’s not the exact same game as the original.”

Which, is true. The remake completely changes the graphics style, from the old 2-D look of the Game Boy original to something almost claymation-like, using a fixed 3/4 perspective, but with 3D models done in a cartoonish style. It remains to be seen what other changes are in store, and whether they are good or bad. It’s rather likely that the game will play differently in some respects, whether due to differences in the game engine, or changes in the design of the game.

I happen to love the way the new graphics look, so this doesn’t bother me. I liked the original graphics, too. And if I want to play the original game, I still can, and so can anyone with a the original hardware or a decent emulator.
But it seems that, among Zelda fans, there’s a certain segment who prefer the graphics to look “serious” — like Ocarina of Time, Skyward Sword, Breath of the Wild, etc., and not “cartoony” like Wind Waker or Four Swords Adventures. Somehow, original LoZ pleases both camps, and Link’s Awakening is in the vein of LoZ and Zelda 3: A Link to the Past. And I guess the new look for Link’s Awakening is too cartoony for them. This does not bother me. I like good art direction, and that can be “serious” or “cartoony” or something else.

It’s certainly true that many attempts at re-making some original classic game fail to capture what was special about the original game. It’s tempting to try to re-imagine something that was very, very good, thinking that adding something more will make it even better. Often that’s not the case.

Certainly, there’s a built-in expectation that a remake has to live up to, which a fresh new game doesn’t, and this can offset whatever advantage the remake had in being based off of a familiar, known, successful game. It can be very easy to mess up by deviating from the original in the wrong way. For example, updating the graphics in a style that fans don’t like, or likewise with the music. But worse would be a major change in the story, something that violates canon or continuity, or is just a change that upsets fans by breaking an unwritten contract to keep the game authentic to the characters and world that Fandom has already accepted. And perhaps the gravest mistake would be failing to ensure that the controls feel tight and responsive and give the game a good feel, ideally something virtually identical to the original. There’s nothing like tasting someone else’s attempt at your favorite recipe that your mom made when you were a kid, and no matter what they do it’s always just slightly off in a way that, even if it’s not bad, it prevents you from accepting it. I think that’s ultimately what makes fans of the original all but impossible to please when it comes to embracing a remake.

But that’s not to say that remaking a game is always a bad thing. I don’t view a remake as an attempt to replace or supplant the original. Rather, I look at it like in the way I look at theater: A playwright can write a play, and it can be performed by an original troupe of actors. And other theater companies can put on productions of the same play. Some may try to do it exactly the way the original was done, following a tradition, while others may stray and experiment. Some will be good, some will not. But it’s not like people shouldn’t continue to put on performances of Shakespeare just because purists who were fans of the original will find something not to like about it. And of course people should continue to write new, original scripts. The entertainment industry is large enough, and the audience is large enough, to sustain both.

Ultimately, it will come down to how the game plays. It’s only fair to judge the remake based on what it is, and not what it’s not. And to be clear, it will not be:

  • The same as the original.
  • A brand new, original game.
  • Different from the original in exactly the way everyone would like it to be.

Will it be worthy? That remains to be seen, and will be a matter of opinion and consensus. But I’m excited about it.

I’m buying a Switch, and other reasons I’ll be a happy gamer in 2019

So a bunch of great announcements from Nintendo came earlier today. For me, the highlights are:

Link’s Awakening Remake

Yeah, Breath of the Wild blew everyone away at launch and sold a few million systems, and I’ll admit I was very tempted to rush out and buy a Switch when it was released.

But I’m not an early adopter and I wanted to wait and see if the system would be a success, particularly after seeing how Nintendo struggled with making the Wii U realize its potential. So I held off.

I like 2-D Zelda more than 3-D Zelda, because 2D > 3D, as far as I’m concerned. And this Link’s Awakening remake looks fantastic.

I’m actually maybe more excited about this than I am about finally getting to play BotW soon.

Super Mario Maker 2

I told myself at the time, I would buy a Switch if they had Super Mario Maker for it. For a while I debated getting a Wii U so I could play both Breath of the Wild and Super Mario Maker, but I decided I wanted the real, full BotW experience with the improved controls made possible by the Switch’s joycon technology.

I’m glad I waited, now. I didn’t have to wait, I could have predicted even then that we’d see a SMM at some point on the system; it was just too popular not to be a thing. But now that it’s announced and official, I can’t wait. Really looking forward to designing some Mario levels in June.

Tetris 99

Battle Royale Tetris, awww yeah!!!!

Non-Nintendo news

Well, actually I’m not quite done with Nintendo news, but these next two are NES homebrew releases.

Full Quiet

First, Full Quiet has got me all hot and bothered to put some more hours on my AVS console. I backed the Kickstarter, and got to play it and talk to creator Tim Hartman at Portland Retro Gaming Expo back in October of last year. I’m pleased to say that this game is already looking incredible, and it should be out later this year. Even if it’s not, and release slips another year, it will be worth the wait. This is not one to miss.

Just look at the latest video showing it in action.

Without exaggerating, I will say that this may end up going down as one of the greatest releases on the NES. And considering the greatness of the NES library, that’s a truly staggering accomplishment.

From talking to Tim, I’m aware that his game will also be released on Steam, playable on PC though emulation of the NES hardware, which means that even if you don’t own a working NES for some reason, you can play this game. And you should.

MicroMages

MicroMages should also be shipping sometime in 2019. This game bears a resemblance to Towerfall, the 4-player archery arena battle indie sensation from a few years ago, but runs on NES hardware, and is pretty fantastic in its own right.

FPGA retro consoles

If that’s not enough, I’m also looking forward to the delivery of the Analogue Mega SG, a FPGA-based, HDMI-output implementation of the Sega Genesis, and the Collectorvision Phoenix, a FGPA-based, upgraded ColecoVision plus.

I can’t imagine that I’ll have enough free time to play all of these nearly as much as I’d like to, but I still can’t wait, and I can’t believe all the good stuff that’s happening in the world of gaming, so much of it the product of cottage industry efforts devoted to keeping older systems relevant. 2019 is going to be a fantastic year.

Patriots and nationalists: the real truth

French President Emmanuel Macron tried to make some point over the weekend about Nationalism vs. Patriotism, in a rebuke of Donald Trump’s nationalistic ways.

It’s bullshit.

Not the rebuke of Trump; that was much needed. But the idea that we can distinguish between nationalism and patriotism.

They’re synonyms. They more or less mean the same thing. Yeah, there are maybe some slight differences of connotation, of usage, but they’re pretty close to interchangeable.

English is a highly overloaded language and there’s a lot of redundant words, and we use them to reflect nuance, but sometimes that nuance isn’t really there, or isn’t really as big as we make it. But for one reason or another, we end up deciding we like one word over another, like we have better taste for having a more refined vocabulary.

But I digress.

There’s good things and bad things about countries, and therefore there’s good things and bad things about loving your country. You can’t take all the good things, shove them to one side, and say “we’re going to label that ‘patriotism'” and then take all the bad things, shove them over to the other side, and say “that’s nationalism”.

We have to come to grips with the fact that whatever label you use, there’s good and bad wrapped up in humanity, and therefore, irreducibly, in any human collective.

What we need to do is use our brains, our reason and judgment, our ability to perceive, to fix the problems that the bad causes, and amplify the good. We can do this. We have had a good, long run of doing it. The overwhelming trend over the last 10,000-50,000 years has been that we do it. It seems like as we’ve scaled up our numbers, the challenges have gotten greater, and that lately maybe we’re coming up short more than not. Those glaciers are melting. We need to get back to doing smart things, and fixing problems. Less petty fights, and definitely way less concentrating wealth and power into the hands of a tiny fraction of a percent of all people.

Back to Macron: If your takeaway from his speech was that there’s bad nationalists and good patriots and hey I’m a patriot, and that sounds good and makes me feel good to say it, and now I’m better than these bad nationalists, you’ve completely missed the real truth.

The real truth is this: There’s plenty of fucking bullshit wrapped up in patriotism. Plenty. There’s plenty of bad carried out in the name of patriotism. Patriotic sentiment can and has at times netted a positive good for human civilization. But it nearly as often carries with it that bad stuff that you can’t just scrape off and shed onto the word “nationalism” and then say “our country is so good, it’s the best! I’m a patriot!” and feel like all is right with the world. It doesn’t work that way.

A lot of the good stuff about patriotism could be applied just as well, just as easily to a larger collective of people inside an even larger border.

We could draw the border as the edge of our solar system, and feel all the good things that we currently ascribe to how we feel about our country.

We could say “We are the people of Earth! A good people! The only people, in fact, anywhere! We’re all here trying to make shit work, keep each other alive, and comfortable, and maybe laugh a bit, before we die.”

We could say that. There’s no reason we couldn’t. But most of us won’t, won’t even consider it. Why? Because countries. Because invisible lines agreed to by the ancestors of powerful men, and paid for in blood. Because we’re too afraid of each other to forgive and to forge trust. Because we’re too concerned with our small concerns, and trying to fuck over someone else just to get a leg up on everyone else.

In the mythical past when we were great, which existed even then as an imperfect, incomplete fiction, we dreamed of global unification, of reaching out into the cosmos and taming the void. We dreamed about mega scale engineering projects to transform dead worlds and branch out, extending our civilization. Because we thought that it was worth something, and worth preserving, spreading, and sharing.

No one much talks about those dreams any more. We talk about oil and natural gas reserves. We talk about garbage patches, turning the oceans into a plastic soup. We talk about fresh water, and sometimes about glaciers. We talk about the Kardashians, and not very much about the disappearing animals and the vanishing rainforests. We talk about our skin color and who we like to have sex with, like it’s some big deal that overshadows the great extinction event we’ve triggered. And we talk about wars that were fought a century ago, having learned nothing from them, even as we ignore the wars happening in poor places encircling the planet, the direct heritage of the War to End All Wars, which we so foolishly perceive to have “ended”.

We needed to discard patriotism a long time ago, and embrace humanism. We are a tremendous disappointment in so many ways. And a good third of us, at least, are mindlessly tugging the whole lot of us backwards, while another third of us passively do nothing, and another third express some reservations — politely, as though “how you play the game” matters more than winning or losing.

Well, I don’t have a tidy wrap-up. No happy ending. No hopeful message. No plan. Just some observations and some judgments. You can hammer the Like button if you want to, you can share this far and wide, you can copy and paste it, you can mail it and email it, you can print it on billboards, and you can carve it into mountains, but it won’t make a bit of difference, it won’t change a thing.

What will make a difference is what you do with your life.

Enjoy your time here, while you can. Try to fix some problems. Try to learn from some mistakes.

Stan Lee, Mighty Marvel Magnate: R.I.P. and Thanks

Stan Lee, the Homer of American 20th century culture, maker of myth and monsters, died today at the age of 95. 

You almost certainly don’t need me to tell you who he was. His fame was universal, assured by his two superpowers: story telling and self promotion.

Stan wasn’t the only person who made Marvel Comics and later Marvel Entertainment the force in popular culture that it was, but he was probably the most recognizable name among a pantheon of legends that included Jack “King” Kirby, John Romita, Steve Ditko, and many others.

He created, co-created, or promoted amazing fantasies, a multiverse of heroes and villains, mutants and mundanes, celestials and sub-humans, terrestrials, extra-terrestrials, and extra-dimensionals, and even a sub-mariner. 

His energy and enthusiasm were infinite.  His corporeal form, alas, was not.  Yet his legend is assured immortality.

You held great power, and you wielded it with sublime responsibility.  You touched the lives of billions of people, and set fire to our imaginations.

Today through the news of his passing, he is making a cameo appearance on every social media feed on the planet.  We feel a collective earth quake as our hearts break upon learning that today the inevitable has finally come.

Thank you, Stan Lee.

R.I.P.

Excelsior!

Collectorvision Phoenix demoed at Portland Retro Gaming Expo

I attended the Portland Retro Gaming Expo this past weekend, and enjoyed myself very much.

One of the many highlights of the show was getting to try out the new Phoenix console from Collectorvision.

Having seen it in person and tried it firsthand, I can say that it is the real deal, and is absolutely worth the money they’re asking for it on kickstarter.

The campaign is a bit behind the pace with their funding goal, and they need and deserve support. Just 1000 pre-orders are all that’s needed to successfully fund the project and make the system a reality.

You can back the project here:

https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1408938247/collectorvision-phoenix-an-fpga-colecovision-conso/description

For just $200, you get an enhanced, 100% compatible, 100% accurate ColecoVision with HDMI output, built in Super Game Module and FA-18 mods, cartridge slot and SD card slot, original and SNES controller ports, and a ps2 keyboard port. Collectorvision announced Atari 2600 compatibility, and plans for supporting other vintage game systems such as the Adam and MSX.

ColecoVision is an underrated and underappreciated console, both in its heyday and today. With graphics capabilities between the Atari 2600 and the NES, it has a small but very loyal following, and a decent library of original games and an active homebrew community releasing new games. It’s a great time to get into the system if you are vintage gamer.

CollectorVision Phoenix: A modern, premium FPGA-based ColecoVision compatible retro console

Help CollectorVision reach their crowdfunding goal and make the Phoenix a reality!

Earlier this week, CollectorVision announced the crowdfunding campaign launch for their Phoenix console on Kickstarter. CollectorVision has in the past developed modern homebrew games for the 1982 ColecoVision videogame console, and in addition to that have partnered with OpCode games, developers of the ColecoVision Super Game Module expansion, which augments the system with more RAM and improved graphics capability.

I’m very excited about this system. ColecoVision was a great system, which died too young due to the videogame industry crash of 1983. It offered graphics nearly on par with the NES, a full year before the Famicom was released in Japan, and delivered home ports of early 80s arcade games that offered greater fidelity to the originals than was possible on the Atari 2600.

The Phoenix’s feature list is amazing: FPGA hardware implementation for 100% compatibility and fidelity with the original system, HDMI-out video, SD card slot, built-in Super Game Module and F18A enhancement hardware, 10 built-in ROMs of modern ColecoVision homebrew games, DB9 controller ports for original ColecoVision controllers, as well as SNES controller ports for compatibility with more common/comfortable SNES gamepads, and even a PS/2 keyboard connector. There’s even been talk of including an FPGA core for support of Atari 2600 games, much like the original ColecoVision’s Expansion Module 1 adapter for Atari 2600 games.

This is a dream system, and considering that, its price tag of $200 is very reasonable. Compared to the RetroUSB AVS system and the Analog Super NT, the Phoenix will fill a nice in retrogame preservation and it deserves to make its crowdfunding goal of $230,000.

To hit this goal, CollectorVision will need about 1000 backers to sign up. The kickstarter campaign is off to a somewhat slow start, however — three days into the campaign, they’ve only managed to secure $28,000 in pledges. Usually, a system like this would be fully funded in the first day, or even the first hour of the crowdfunding campaign going live. If the campaign received steady contributions every day at the level they have for the first 3 days, they would make goal, but it’s most typical for kickstarters to get most of their funding on the first few days, and the last few days. So I’m worried that they will not hit their goal. 

Perhaps retro gamers are wary of crowdfunding for yet another modern retro game console. People enthusiastically backed Ouya to the tune of $8 million dollars several years ago, and the recent AtariBox/Atari VCS crowdfunding was also successful in reaching goal, but only made $3 million dollars amid serious doubts about the current company calling itself Atari’s capabilities to deliver on what it has promised, and alleged mis-representation of their prototype hardware.

I don’t have any insider knowledge of CollectorVision, but everything I have seen from them about the Phoenix looks good, and I have faith that they care capable of delivering on their promises, if they can make their fundraising goal. Their hardware really exists, and all they need is capital for manufacturing. If you have fond memories of the ColecoVision and the early-80’s era of videogames, definitely check out the project, and consider becoming a backer.

GameMaker Tutorial: Configuration system

Many games have options or settings that are configurable.  The specifics can vary widely, from graphics options to music and sound effects volume to to input configuration to in-game options such as difficulty level and which rules are enabled/disabled.

This article will cover how to create a basic configuration system, using external file i/o, ds_map, and json.

Define your configuration requirements

First, before you develop it, design the system.  Not every variable in your project need be subject to customization. Decide what configuration options you want, and define the variables that will be needed to control them, and decide on your default values. 

The default configuration should be safe to run on all devices the game is intended to run on, and should have the “standard” or “recommended” settings for the best or recommended game experience. 

Having defaults is important in case the external config file is missing or corrupted, and needs to be regenerated.  Create a ds_map called defaults, and use it to store all the default values.

Coding the config system

Coding a simple config system is actually very easy.

First, define variables to store the default configuration and the actual configuration, and create ds_maps for them.  The best time to create these ds_maps is immediately on launch, as soon as the program starts.  You may want to make these global variables, so that they will be accessible anywhere and will persist for the entire runtime.

global.defaults = ds_map_create();
global.config  = ds_map_create();

Of course, when we are about to exit the game, we will need to remember to destroy these data structures, to properly free up the RAM:

ds_map_destroy(global.defaults);
ds_map_destroy(global.config);

Next, initialize the defaults ds_map with all the variables that are part of the configuration, and their default values. It’s easiest to learn the shortcode for accessing ds_map values:

defaults[? "key"] = value;

In the code above, “key” is the name of your variable, in quotes, as a string. The value is the literal value of the variable.

So you can do this:

global.defaults[? "starting_lives"] = 3;

or

global.defaults[? "starting_lives"] = default_starting_lives;

As you can see, the ds_map’s key indexing allows you to choose meaningful names for the keys, which makes it easy to recall them later.

When you apply the configuration to the variables in your project, assign the value from the ds_map, like this:

variable = config[? "key"];
starting_lives = config[? "starting_lives"];

Once you have your ds_map populated with your configuration data, it’s time to write it to disk.  This is will save the file so that the configuration state can be read and applied to the game state the next time the program runs.

The gml function json_encode() makes it very easy to write the ds_map to a file, by converting the ds_map into json, or JavaScript Object Notation, which is just a commonly used data format, and can be thought of as a specially formatted string. You don’t need to know anything about the syntax of json in order to use the encoding/decoding functions.

Create a json-encoded string version of the config ds_map:

config_string = json_encode(global.config);

Check to see if an external config file exists already, and if not, create it and fill it with the default configuration:

if !file_exists(working_directory + "config.json")
{
config_file = file_text_open_write(working_directory + "config.json");
file_text_write(config_file, defaults_string);
file_text_close(config_file);
}

If the config file already exists, read it into a string variable, decode the json string to convert it back into a ds_map, validate the data in the ds_map, and, if valid, apply the configuration data:

//First read the json data out of the config file
config_file = file_text_open_read(working_directory + "config.json");
config_json = file_text_read_string(config_file);
file_text_close(config_file);

//Next, decode the json, converting it to a ds_map
global.config = json_decode(config_json);

//Now, validate the configuration data to verify the settings are good
if !config_validate(global.config) //config_validate is a script that you wrote to validate your custom configuration data.
{
   //if we failed validation, destroy the config and create a good copy using defaults.
   ds_map_destroy(global.config);
   config = ds_map_copy(global.default);
}

[...]

//apply data stored in global.config to the variables in your project as needed, where and when appropriate.

The exact details will vary depending on your project, but the above is a good example to follow to get  you started.

Implementation: Data and File I/O

It might help to explain the above, in plain English, without the code examples getting in the way.

When the game runs, the very first thing the program should do is check to see if a configuration file exists.   If it exists, we read the data out of the file using file_text_string_read(fileid) and json_decode(string).  This returns a ds_map of key:value pairs that contain all the configuration data. If the config file does not exist, then we create it, populating it with our default data values.

Next, if we’ve successfully read data out of our config file, we need to validate the configuration data that we read from the file. If the configuration data is invalid, depending on the setting and the value, the game will not work properly, and may crash or may perform unexpectedly or break.  Your program may have written the data incorrectly, or it might have a bug that results in a corrupted file, or the user may find the file and manually edit it, and introduce errors.  So check each value in the configuration ds_map, and verify that it is valid by checking to see if the value is of the correct data type (string, number, or boolean), and that it is within the range of acceptable values for that variable.  Write a script that does this, according to the particular needs of your game.

If validation fails, whether because the file is missing, or because one of the values found within it is incorrect, we can handle this in several ways.  One way is to reset all values back to their default values. Another way is per-setting, restoring the invalid value back to the default value.  Or we can simply display an error message to the player and exit the program. Decide what is best for your project, and implement it that way.

Usually, I recommend checking whether the file exists, and if not, regenerate it using defaults, and if it exists, restore individual settings to default one by one if there is an invalid value, rather than resetting the entire configuration back to the defaults if any of the values is invalid.  This way, a small error in the config file doesn’t blow out all the settings, and program will leave any valid customized settings alone, so that the user will only need to correct the values that were reset to default.

If we have a valid configuration, the next step is to apply those values to the game variables. 

Once the game variables have been set, the game is now ready to run.

Editing the configuration

One great thing about storing the configuration data in an external file is, we no longer need to re-compile the game every time we wish to tweak the settings.  This can greatly speed up testing, as compilation can take a minute or more each time, and this rapidly adds up when  you’re quitting, coding, re-launching again and again as you develop. So use the configuration system as  you test your game design.

We can edit the configuration in various ways.

The simplest to develop is to develop nothing; just rely on the user to find the configuration file on disk, open it up with a text editor, and change values, save the file, and run the game again.  You’ll find the writeable working directory for your game somewhere inside of %appdata% in a Windows build, but if you’re building the project for other platforms, you’ll need to find it.

While this is the easiest approach, this isn’t the most user friendly solution. A better user experience would be to put a GUI in the game to change the settings, and let the game program edit the config file.  This will be safer for the user, as you can constrain the input and check it for valid values before saving the config file.

The downside is that this can take a lot of extra work to build the user interface. Sadly, GameMaker does not provide a library of user input controls, such as buttons, checkboxes, text boxes, sliders, and so on. So to build the UI, we first have to build these controls.

This is a great opportunity for beginner programmers to get some experience designing and programming their own controls.  But it’s also a time-consuming task, and can be a frustrating challenge for a newbie programmer to figure out how to make a collection of robust, bug-free UI controls that are easy to use, work together, and behave in a way that the user expects based on their experience using other software. And doing this takes time away from developing the game part of the project.

It’s a lot of work, so having an easy way out is a good thing. There are assets available through GameMaker marketplace, which can be purchased for a few dollars, and provide the needed functionality. Either way, it’s good to have a set of reusable controls that you can put into any project, so whether you buy some, or you decide to make your own, you can get a lot of value out of them.

Advanced concerns

Storing arrays, ds_structures inside json

Up until now, the examples I’ve given have all been simple data types.  If you want to store something else, like an array, or a data structure, or graphics data, it gets more complicated.  This article is just an intro level tutorial, so it won’t cover these advanced topics.  But I expect I may cover them in the future, at some point.  Many games will not need the advanced techniques to store the basic configuration data.

Applying config to application state

Certain configuration changes, such as display size settings, will require the room or game to be restarted before they take effect.  In such case, you may need to use game_restart() or room_restart(). If you are confident that the data is being applied correctly to update the game variables, but you’re not seeing the change, try a room restart and see if the changes take effect.

But any room or game restart will restart the game in progress, and that may not be what you want to happen at all!  If you have a game where you can change the configuration from the Pause screen, for example, you will not want to disrupt the running game.  In that case, you’ll need to go further and handle this in some way, such as:

  1. Display a message to the user saying that the changes will take effect after they quit and relaunch the game.
  2. Give the play the option save the present game-state and then restore it with the new configuration in effect.

Details on exactly how to do this will vary considerably depending on your game’s design, but if you need to do this, you’ll essentially be building a save state feature for your game, and then calling it to save and then restore the game after the restart.

The basic logical flow of this process is as follows:

If <config change will require restart> and <game is in progress>{ save game-state to external file; restart;}

On re-start, check for existence of a game-state file, and if it exists, clear the room of default starting instances; restore room from game-state; then delete the game-state file.

This sounds fairly straightforward and simple, and, in concept at least, it is.  The difficulty is with storing all of the instances and their state data. Depending on the game, you may have hundreds of instances, and each instance may have a lot of data, and all of it needs to be written to file, then read back out of file, in order to reconstruct the game in the state where it left off.

Making it tamper resistant

You may welcome the user tinkering with the config file, or you may want to protect the config file against unwanted tampering. Usually this isn’t critical for a config file, but for a save file or a high scores file, it might be important to prevent cheating. If your game uses password-protected user accounts, or stores any kind of financial data or purchase records, you should be storing that data securely.

This should be all you need. I won’t get into technical detail here, but will outline a few tools you can make use of.

  1. Use ds_map_secure_save() and ds_map_secure_load() to securely store the configuration data in an encrypted file. The encrypted file will not be editable by a curious user. The manual doesn’t give detail about what encryption is used.  Depending on how serious you are about protecting the data, you will want to research encryption and use an algorithm that hasn’t been broken. Don’t attempt to invent your own encryption.
  2. Create a cryptographic hash of the configuration data string, and store the hash with the file.  When you read the file, re-hash the data you read out of the file, and verify that the hashes match.  If they don’t, something has changed, and you know the file has been tampered with or corrupted.  In this case, you should re-generate the entire config file from defaults. 

    Look at GML’s md5 functions to get started.  GML also provides sha1 hashing for this purpose. MD5 hashes are no longer considered secure, and sha1 is also no longer considered secure, but may be “good enough” for non-critical needs. While not “hacker proof” they will prevent casual tinkerers from being able to modify the data.

Saving external data for other purposes

Now that we know how to store data in an external file, retrieve it, validate it, and use it at runtime, there are other applications we can use these techniques for. 

The most obvious one that comes to mind is save states.  I’ve already touched on this above, in brief.  Other ideas include:

  1. High score, leaderboard, and achievement data.
  2. Telemetry data for debugging or analytics.
  3. User profiles (to allow multiple users of the same machine to each have their own configuration and save file preference).
  4. Level Editors.
  5. Mod packs, to allow a community of players to make custom modifications to your game, such as level data, or other external resources like sprites and sound effects, etc.

As these features become more and more advanced and complicated, they’re really best left to professionals working on commercial projects.  But by following the approach described in this article to do a simple configuration system, you’ll have taken the first steps toward getting your skills up to that level.

GameMaker Tutorial: Audio speedup with sync

In so many games, music speedup is a great way to get the message to the player that they need to hurry up and get things done.

It’d be great if you could simply set a new tempo with a simple GML function, and have the current background music adjust on the fly. Something like audio_sound_set_speed(sound, speed) would be lovely. But it’s not as simple as that in GameMaker, as I found out recently.

Here’s how I implemented a speedup for my GMLTetris project:

First, I created two music tracks, one at normal speed, and one at double speed, and added them to the game project as sound assets.

Everything else is just programming:

if <condition> {stop slow_music; start fast_music;}

This is easy enough, the trickiest part is probably getting the condition right to switch tracks, but depending on the game, that condition could be very simple, too.  The only real complication is that if you’re checking the condition repeatedly, as you normally would every Step, you only want to trigger the changeover once.  So to do that, set up a variable to track whether the switch has happened already, and check it, too, even if the condition that triggers the changeover continues to remain true on successive steps.

if <condition> && !music_switched {stop slow_music; start fast_music; music_switched = true;}

The music speedup that happens in a game like Super Mario Bros., where the music speedup occurs when the level timer hits 100, is a typical example of such a technique. If you only need to do a single, one-way switch, this is all you need.

If your game needs to switch back and forth between slow and fast music, your conditional needs to be more sophisticated.

if <condition>
{
   if !<fast_music_already_playing>
   {stop slow_music; start fast_music;}
}
else
{
   if !<slow_music_already_playing>
{stop fast_music; start slow_music;}
}

Here, because the game can switch multiple times, when the condition check happens, we can’t get away with a music_switched variable that changes one time. What we need to do is check to see if the music we need to switch to is already playing, and if not, stop the current music and switch to the other music.

One thing to keep in mind, this basic technique will start the fast music from the beginning of the track. This might be what you want, but it would also be good if you could start the fast music at the position where the slow music was, for a seamless transition.

GML has the functions to do this: audio_sound_get_track_position() and audio_sound_set_track_position(). But in order to make use of them, we need to do a bit more work.

First, since the gml functions return the absolute time position of the track, and since two tracks play at different speeds, we need to adjust the position proportionately when we switch tracks, so that the position is at the same position percentage-wise. This is actually easy, as long as we know the tempo change, which we do. Since the fast track is double speed, we can easily calculate the equivalent position in the other track by multiplying or dividing by 2.

Slow to fast: position *= 0.5;

Fast to slow: position *= 2;

Where I ran into trouble was, I needed to be able to switch both ways. It seemed like it should be simple — just check whether the desired track is already playing, and if not, get the position of the current track, adjust it proportionately, start the desired track, set the position. Easy, right?

Let’s look at it in pseudocode first:

if <condition to switch to fast music>
{
   if audio_is_playing(slow_music)
   {get position; stop slow music; start fast music; set position;}
}
else
{
   if audio_is_playing(fast_music)
   {get position; stop fast music; start slow music; set position;}
}

This was when I discovered that audio_play_sound() returns a handle for identifying the specific instance of the sound that is playing. This is necessary to use to set the track position of the playing sound. You can’t just set the position for the sound_index; you have to set it for the specific handle of the currently playing instance of the sound. If you set the track position for the sound_index, any time that sound resource is played in the future, it will start from that position.

///Create Event:
bgm = audio_play_sound(slow_music, 10, true);
///Step Event:
if <condition>
{
  if audio_is_playing(slow_music)
  {
  var pos = audio_sound_get_track_position(bgm);
  audio_stop_sound(bgm);
  bgm = audio_play_sound(fast_music, 10, true);
  audio_sound_set_track_position(bgm, pos * 0.5);
  }
}
else
{
  if audio_is_playing(fast_music)
  {
  var pos = audio_sound_get_track_position(bgm);
  audio_stop_sound(bgm);
  bgm = audio_play_sound(slow_music, 10, true);
  audio_sound_set_track_position(bgm, pos * 2);
  }
}

I also discovered that detecting which track is playing with audio_is_playing() does not work for this purpose. I still don’t have a clear understanding of what was happening in my code, but some debugging showed that my track position calculations were being distorted by being called multiple times. This doesn’t make sense to me because the song should no longer be playing after the first step when the switch condition is met. But my theory is that since the audio is played in another process from the main program, there’s some messaging going between the two processes asynchronously, and as a result audio_sound_is_playing() can return true a step later after the message is sent to stop the track playing.

By trying to set the track point multiple times in quick succession, weird and unexpected results happened, and the tracks switched but did not set to the correct position.

So I had to come up with a surer method of knowing which music is playing.

Debugging was tricky, since I couldn’t tell from listening where the audio position was. To aid debugging, I drew the position of the playing track to the screen, and then I was able to see that the position was not being set correctly as expected. Somehow, switching from slow to fast would drop the track back from about 10 seconds to 2 seconds, and then switching from fast to slow would jump from 2 seconds to 38 seconds.

I couldn’t figure out why that was happening, so I tried using show_debug_message() and watched the output console, and saw that the track position would update 2 or 3 times when the tracks switched; I was expecting it to only update once.

This is what clued me in to what I believe was happening due to the multiple processes communicating synchronously.

The solution I used in the end was easy and simple: instead of checking which track was currently playing, and switching from slow to fast or vice versa based on the currently playing audio asset, I just added a new variable, condition_previous, and compared condition to condition_previous, and made the switch happen only when the current condition didn’t match condition_previous. This only happens in one step, when the condition changes from false to true, or vice versa, and so the track position is set once, when the bgm switches tracks and syncs up the new track to where the old track left off.

switch_previous = switch;

switch = <condition to check for switching to the fast music>;

if switch && !switch_previous
{
var pos = audio_sound_get_track_position(bgm);
audio_stop_sound(bgm);
bgm = audio_play_sound(fast_music, 10, true);
audio_sound_set_track_position(bgm, pos * 0.5)
}
else
{
if !switch && switch_previous
{
var pos = audio_sound_get_track_position(bgm);
audio_stop_sound(bgm);
bgm = audio_play_sound(slow_music, 10, true);
audio_sound_set_track_position(bgm, pos * 2);
}
}

This works, because it guarantees that the condition checks will be accurate, as they do not depend on checking the status of the audio playing in another thread.

GML Tetris, a GameMaker Demo project

My latest asset for the GameMaker Marketplace is a Tetris demo. Fully-featured, and configurable, it requires only sound files to be added to complete the project.  

It’s meticulously researched, beautifully coded, fully documented, and rigorously tested, and represents approximately 150 developer hours of work, for only $4.99.  It’s playable as is, right out of the box.  It’s easy to understand the code, easy to configure with simple changes to the code, and modding is encouraged.

Colin Kaepernick, Nike, and Pat Tillman

Two days ago, Nike made headlines with a new advertising campaign featuring NFL quarterback Colin Kaepernick, who hasn’t worked in professional sports for several years due to being blacklisted for his protest of police violence against minorities during the pregame rendition of the national anthem.

A day after the unveiling of the campaign, a response using the image of Pat Tillman, an NFL player who left his NFL career behind in order to enlist in the military, and who died fighting in Afghanistan, in an attempt to mock and discredit the Nike campaign, and to make a statement seemingly in opposition to the protest against police violence.

Opponents of justice and phony patriots have attempted for years to cast Kaepernick’s protest as unpatriotic and disrespectful to veterans.

See, here’s the thing about that. If you wanted to cast Pat Tillman’s death in the most flattering possible light, you would say that Pat Tillman walked away from a multi-million dollar career to selflessly give his life defending American freedom. There’s a lot of problems with that, but for the moment let’s grant it, to give pro-Tillman/anti-Kaepernick advocates their strongest argument.

For the freedom that Tillman died defending to be worth anything, it must be freedom for all Americans. Wrapped up in the concept of freedom are the rights that, although enshrined in our Constitution and in the Declaration of Independence, are routinely denied to black and brown people without due process or recourse.

This is at the very heart of Colin Kaepernick’s protest during the national anthem. If Pat Tillman died to protect the rights and freedoms of Americans, that must include those rights and freedoms that are denied to Americans whom Colin Kaepernick is speaking for through his protest. And if so, then using Pat Tillman’s sacrifice to denigrate Colin Kaepernick also denigrates Pat Tillman.

Kaepernick has stood on principle for his right to express his views and to make peaceful protest against injustice, which is a right guaranteed to him by the Constitution, and has done so at the cost of his NFL career, representing tens or even hundreds of millions of dollars. The fact that Nike would contract with Kaepernick, paying him money to endorse their products does not in any way negate this, any more than the act of resigning in protest from a job for reasons of principle would be negated by finding other employment.

Kaepernick may not have died in a foreign battlefield, but his sacrifice is nonetheless real. Death is not the only sacrifice, and though people be willing to give their lives, none should ask or require this as the only measure for “true” sacrifice.

Using Tillman’s image and sacrifice in this way is an attempt to drive a wedge between Tillman’s life and the highest, most sacred principles that the nation he died serving was founded upon, and an attempt to drive a wedge between Americans. Recognizing this, I am able to recognize the sacrifices of both men as being for the same cause.