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Pixel Art Chess Set: Communicating function through design

My five year old nephew started learning to play Chess recently, as I discovered on a visit a few weeks ago.  We played two games, and I didn’t have too much trouble beating him, but for a five year old he’s not bad. He knows all the pieces and their basic moves and their relative value.

I thought it would be fun to build a video Chess game that he could use to help learn strategy and how to see the board. So this is my latest project. I’ll be posting more about that as I work on it.

My first step was to design graphic resources. I didn’t want to spend too much time on it, just a basic “programmer art” chess set, that I could use to build the program with. Of course, it didn’t end up that way, and I’ve gone down the rabbit hole designing variations on sets of minimalist pixel art chess men. It’s too fun and fascinating not to.

My first attempt was actually rather good, I thought. I went for 16x16px representations of the classic chess pieces. I drew them very quickly, but was very pleased with my results, particularly the Knight.

I could have stopped right there, but it was so fun to make this set that I wanted to continue exploring and see if I could refine my pixeling technique further.

I decided to search the net for images of chess pieces to see what variety there was, and found a lot of examples of beautiful sets. I started to take notes and to infer design rules for chess men:

  1. Chess pieces are called “chess men” which seems antiquated and sexist, especially given that the most powerful piece in the game is the Queen.
  2. The modern standard chessmen are a design named for English chess master Howard Staunton, and have been in use only since the mid-19th century. A strength of its design is that each piece is easily distinguished from the others, making errors from mistakes in identifying a piece — a problem with other sets — unlikely. Previously, chess men of different types had a less distinct appearance from one another, and were not as standardized.
  3. In a Staunton set, the Knights are the most detailed, ornate, varied, and realistically represented pieces. 
  4. In Staunton sets, there is a standard height order: pawn, rook, knight, bishop, queen, king. (This surprised me, since Rooks are more valued in Chess I would have expected them to be taller than Bishops.)
  5. The pieces are differentiated by their tops. Each type of piece has a distinct, unambiguous shape.
  6. The body/base of the pieces have a common design, to create unity among the pieces in the set.

I tried to apply design choices to my chess set following these insights.

A follower on Twitter offered feedback that the pieces should be different heights, so I tried that. With a 16×16 pixel tile size, I could only shorten the back row pieces by 1-3 pixels.  I also tweaked the King piece by adding a few more pixels to its top, to make it a bit more distinct from the Queen, and moved the Pawn so that it wold be more centered in its square.

I do like the result:

Staunton pixel chessmen

I think my initial 16×16 Staunton set look like they’re in ALL CAPS, while this set is more “readable” by using “mixed case” heights for the pieces.

I wanted my chess game to be focused on usability and instruction. I needed each piece to be immediately recognizable, and not to convey a bunch of extraneous information to the player that has nothing to do with play mechanics. 

My next attempt was a different take altogether. I wanted the look of each piece to suggest its rules for movement. I also thought that it would be clever if the pieces communicated the rules for using them through their visual design.

I ended up being very pleased with this set as well, although I went through many more variations, particularly with the Pawn. This one also came together easily and rapidly.  When your tile size is 16×16 and you’re working in just a few colors, it’s easy to work fast.

Things I like about this set:

  1. The shape of the piece is a built-in tutorial for how the piece moves.
  2. The Pawns still have a pawn-like shape (at least the black pawns; white pawns are “upside down”).
  3. The Knight’s shape may be read as an abstraction of the horse’s head shape of the Staunton piece.

I think out of these variations, my favorites are: P9, Kn2, B3, R1, K?  I’m least certain which King I like.  I think K4 and K5 are my top two, but I also liked the idea of incorporating a crown motif into the design, to signify the King’s special property of being the King.  K1, K2 and K6 were attempts at this, but I think K1 looks too much like a Staunton Rook, unfortunately.

I wasn’t sure which of my designs to use for my final set, so  I posted my sets on Twitter and a pixel art community on Facebook. @Managore responded to my request for feedback by coming up with a set of his own design, which I quite like.

His design was retweeted and liked over 500 times, and received many positive compliments from his followers, many of whom are game developers. One of my favorite indie developers, @TerryCavanaugh, who made VVVVVV and Don’t Look Back, pointed out an physical chess set that had been designed a few years ago which incorporated the same ideas.

It’s exciting to see my idea get picked up and reworked by fellow game developers who are inspired by the concepts I am exploring. So fun! Getting that validation that what I’m working on is interesting to others is very motivating. But it’s particularly good to get some attention from developers whose work I’ve admired for years, however modest.

I’m excited about this project and look forward to working on the program. I have more design ideas that I’m looking forward to getting into soon.

Tutorial: GameMaker Object with multiple collision zones

GM Version: GameMaker:Studio 1.4 (concept should work in earlier versions)
Target Platform: ALL
Example Download: https://csanyk.com/cs/releases/games/LD48-36_AncientTechnologies/LD48_36_Ancient_Technologies_csanyk.gmz
Links: http://ludumdare.com/compo/ludum-dare-36/?action=preview&uid=10473

Summary:

How to make an object that handles multiple collision zones by using multiple sub-objects

Tutorial:

I used this technique in my recent Ludum Dare game, Ancient Technologies. The project has a TON of extraneous code in it, some of which is pretty messy, so I’ll replace the download link with a cleaner example project of just this technique in coming days.

If you look at the Atari 2600 console in this game, it is actually multiple objects, made to look like a single object. This enables each switch to have its own collision detection and mouse events.

I accomplished this with a few simple techniques that work really well:

The console itself is the main object. Then there are 6 objects for the 6 switches on the console.

I then took the image I wanted to use for the sprite, and cut out all the different clickable regions, putting each into its own subimage by itself. Then once all the subimages were created, I removed each subimage into its own sprite, and set the collision mask to cover just the pixels in the image

Atari 2600 clickmap sheet

As you can see, this approach results in a lot of “wasted” space in the sprite sheet in the form of transparent pixels, but if you’re concerned about this, you could always achieve the same effect by using sprite origin and sprite offset to position the images without all the whitespace in the sprite sheet. I skipped using sprite origin because I didn’t feel like bothering with counting pixels and setting each sprite origin differently. That would have been tedious, and if I had ever needed to change the sprites, could have thrown everything off and required extensive rework to recalculate again. If your sprites are tiny, it probably doesn’t matter too much, but if they’re quite large, then you should probably use sprite origin/offset.

(Note: With the small pieces, you’d need to use origin numbers that are larger than the dimensions of the sprite itself, or possibly negative values for the origin. You’d also need to carefully calculate the distance to set the origin so that the images all line up precisely. The goal is to make all the images align when each instance’s x and y are identical. This makes them easy to move around together as a group, without having to deal with offsets and so on. To make everything align easy, I created sprites that have the same height and width, so that getting them to align takes no extra effort or calculation at all.)

Next, use the “main” object to generate the collision zone objects, in the create event:

Note the example code below isn’t exactly the code in my project, but is cleaned up a bit for easier comprehension.

///oConsole Create Event:
power_switch = instance_create(x, y, oPowerSwitch);
tv_type_switch = instance_create(x, y, oTVTypeSwitch);
left_difficulty_switch = instance_create(x, y, oLeftDifficultySwitch);
right_difficulty_switch = instance_create(x, y, oRightDifficultySwitch);
select_switch = instance_create(x, y, oSelectSwitch);
reset_switch = instance_create(x, y, oResetSwitch);

Since these objects all use sprites that are the same size, they all line up together when their x,y position is the same. Now you have an easy way to place just the main object and have it create all of its collision zone objects, perfectly aligned.

If the main object needs to be able to move, you just need to update the x,y of all the objects whenever you need to.

Another great thing is that each of these instances can have its own animation which is completely separate from the rest of the collection of objects. This means you can do really sophisticated animation rigging.

Also, you can access the instance variables of the collision instances by using the main instance, like so:

oConsole.power_switch.position = UP;

is (essentially) equivalent to:

oPowerSwitch.position = UP;

This allows you to use the collision zone instances’ instance variables like you would use properties of a helper class in another language, which may make accessing these variables easier if you’re used to other programming languages.

As well, if each of these switch instances were of the same object, using the id returned by instance_create() would allow you to differentiate between them. This could be useful for, say, a battleship with multiple turrets that are all of the same object type.

Finally, you’ll want to be mindful that if you destroy the main object, you’ll likely want to destroy all the sub-objects. Perhaps not — maybe you’re doing a spaceship with an escape pod or a rocket with multiple stages that break away. But in that case you’ll wan to be sure that once the main object is gone, you are handling whatever remains somehow.

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